The Building Information Modeling ("BIM") is a complete digital representation of both physical and functional characteristics of an infrastructure. It is the most modern way for a) a technical design and b) the management of the construction and operation of technical projects.
Ένα τέτοιο μοντέλο συνιστά πηγή των απαραίτητων πληροφοριών για ένα κτίριο ή γενικότερα μία υποδομή, δημιουργώντας έτσι μια αξιόπιστη βάση για λήψη βελτιωμένων αποφάσεων σε όλο τον κύκλο ζωής του, που είναι διαθέσιμη από τα πιο πρώιμα στάδια της σχεδιαστικής σύλληψης έως την κατεδάφιση. Συμβάλλει έτσι σε έναν πολυδιάστατο σχεδιασμό, με ποικίλες παραμέτρους: 3Δ (σχεδιαστικό μοντέλο), 4Δ (χρονοδιαγράμματα), 5Δ (κοστολόγηση), 6Δ (βιωσιμότητα), 7Δ (λειτουργία).
The integrated implementation of BIM contains information and data for the entire building, from masonry and building elements to mechanical systems, measurements of materials and supplier data, for each specific project.
The design, construction and management of the project go from a 2dimentional design (2D) to a 3dimentional (3D) information model of the project with usage of smart objects. This results in the timely forecasting and addressing of design inconsistencies and the temporal and financial optimization of the project.
In fact, the complete application of BIM technologies implies not only the use of modern, advanced software and the transition from dimensional design to 3dimensional design, but a radical and total change in the way the project team works. The BIM modifies the implementation process of a project by redistributing the amount of work paid in the different stages of project implementation. In addition, the BIM implies increased requirements in terms of not only the design, but also the quality of the result, the structuring of information related to construction while proposing an ergonomic approach to the implementation process of the technical project aiming to increase efficiency and reduce waste of time and resources.
In addition the BIM concerns the life cycle of the project, and all the work related to the project. The BIM proposes changes in the way of construction and operation of a technical project that concern all, without exception, the project contributors, architects, engineers, project owners or project owners, those responsible for financing, operation and management of the final installation.
The term "Building Information Modeling" was first used by the American architect Phil Bernstein, later vice president of the software company Autodesk. The term was later coined by Jerry Laser, referring to the representation of the construction process, to facilitate the exchange and interoperability of information in digital form. The first application of BIM technology was made in 1987, by the company Graphisoft, and is now the strongest indication of the impending changes in the field of design and construction worldwide.
The use of the BIM goes beyond the project design phase and extends throughout its life, supporting processes such as costing, construction management, project management, installation operation and environmentally friendly building applications. All this additional information is grouped and categorized into "dimensions", beyond the 3D digital model of construction, which evolves into 4D (time), 5D (cost), 6D (sustainability) and 7D (management).
In 4D BIM the digital model represents the exact stage of construction at any given time and incorporates information about what and when something needs to be installed but also in what order. These new features give the architect great freedom in supervising and controlling the project as it reduces errors and repetitive work and increases the quality of construction.
To monitor the construction cost of the building (5D), the BIM provides tools that link the cost with the 3D objects and give the architect the opportunity to control the total or partial cost of work and materials at any time of design - construction. As a result, the owner has an active role in the design decisions related to the financial budget of the project and his relationship with the architect is significantly improved.
Regarding the energy analysis of the building (6D), the MDP provides tools that provide energy data for the efficiency of the systems, shading and lighting and all other energy planning parameters that help the architect to evaluate the strategies from an early stage of studying.
Finally, information on the maintenance and life expectancy of the model elements is entered in the 7D BIM and in this way a database is created for the management of the building. This information can contain information about the supplier, when something was installed, when it needs to be maintained and how it should work in order not to consume more energy as well as its life expectancy.
Τα τελευταία χρόνια έχει δημιουργηθεί και ο όρος Μοντέλο Δομικών Πληροφοριών σε “πράσινες” κατασκευές που μπορεί να βοηθήσει στην βελτίωση της βιωσιμότητας των κατασκευών και να λύσει τα περιβαλλοντικά προβλήματα του κύκλου ζωής από τη φάση του σχεδιασμού.
Τα ΜΔΠ είναι συχνά συνυφασμένα με τα «IFC» και τα «aecXML» – δομές δεδομένων για την αναπαράσταση πληροφορίας. Τα IFC έχουν αναπτυχθεί από την buildingSMART (την πρώην διεθνή συμμαχία για διαλειτουργικότητα), ως ένα ουδέτερο, μη-ιδιόκτητο, “ανοιχτό” πρότυπο με σκοπό το διαμοιρασμό δεδομένων ΜΔΠ (BIM data) μεταξύ των διαφόρων εφαρμογών λογισμικού. Από το πρότυπο IFC4, η τυποποίηση IFC είναι αποδεκτή ως πρότυπο κατά ISO 16739.[
The BIM is a relatively new technology in an industry that is usually evolving slowly. However, many construction professionals who have adopted the BIM early on believe that the BIM will become increasingly important and play a more decisive role in construction documents.
Supporters believe that the BIM helps in the following areas:
- improved illustration
- improved productivity, due to easy retrieval of information
- increased cooperation of construction documents
- integration and connection of vital information, such as suppliers, location and quantities required for each material, for easy measurement and cost estimation
- increased speed of project completion and delivery
- improving project life cycle management
- cost reduction
The BIM also contains information necessary for the analysis of building performance. The structural properties in BIM can be used to automatically create an input file to simulate building behavior, and save significant resources and time.
Bentley Systems, recognizing the contribution of BIM to the development of the construction sector worldwide in the near future, has integrated BIM capabilities in all its products, providing the most advanced possible solutions for professionals.